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Citation Styles for the References Section

 

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BODY STYLES

Unless specified otherwise, please use the following format:

REFERENCE STYLES

References in a paper must be in APA (American Psychological Association) styles as seen in Google Scholar; all of them must be placed at the end of the main body of the text in alphabetical order by author. The reference styles in the text are as follows.

FOOTNOTE FREE

Footnote is not allowed. Any note making a specific point should be placed in the relevant context of the paper body.

SEARCHABLE REFERENCES

Please make sure all references are searchable on and confirm to the APA styles of Google Scholar Website.

CITING IN THE TEXT

References should be cited in the text either in parentheses, e.g., "Earlier studies (Pearce, 1989) showed..." or using the name as part of a sentence, e.g., "Pearce (1989) states..."

Personal communications - emails, conversations, letters - should not be in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text, e.g., (interview with the James Green, University of Southern California, 12 November 2008).

STYLE EXAMPLES

For JOURNAL:  
Surname, Initials (Year). Title of article. Journal Name, Volume(Number), Start-end pages.
Please italicize the journal name and the volume number, and capitalize the first letter after the colon on the article title; only one colon is allowed.

Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P. & Warshaw, P.R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science, 35(8), 982-1003.

Knights, D. & McCabe, D. (1996). 'A bridge too far?': Consistent quality initiatives in financial services. The TQM Magazine, 8(5), 51-55.

Aiken, K.D., Liu, B.S., Mackoy, R.D. & Osland, G.E. (2004). Building internet trust: Signaling through trustmarks. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, 1(3), 251-267.

Tsang, E.W.K. (1995). The implementation of technology transfer in Sino-foreign joint ventures. International Journal of Technology Management, 10(7/8), 757-66.

 

For BOOK:  
Surname, Initials (Year). Title of book (Edition, pp. Start-end pages). Place of publication: Publisher.

Rosenberg, N. (1978). Perspectives of Technology (2nd ed., pp. 66-77). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Li, E.Y. & Du, T.C. (Eds.). (forthcoming). Advances in Electronic Business, Volume 1 (Collaborative Commerce). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.

Myers, P.S. (Ed.). (1996). Knowledge Management and Organizational Design. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

 

For TRANSLATED BOOK:  
Surname, Initials (Year). Title of book. Translated by Translator Initials Surname (Year). Place of publication: Publisher (Original work published in year).

Laplace, P.-S. (1951). A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities. Translated by F.W. Truscott & F.L. Emory (1951). New York: Dover (Original work published in 1814).

 

For BOOK CHAPTER:  
Surname, Initials (Year). Chapter title. In Editor Surname, Initials (Ed.), Title of book (pp. Start-end pages). Place of publication: Publisher.

Kogut, B. (1991). Designing global strategies: Comparative and competitive value-added chains. In H.V. Wortzel, & L.H. Wortzel (Eds.). Strategic Management of Multinational Enterprise: The Essentials (pp. 100-115). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Pinchot, G.& Pinchot, E. (1996). This rise and fall of bureaucracy. In G. Pinchot & E. Pinchot (Eds.). The End of Bureaucracy and the Rise of Intelligent Organizations (pp. 200-215). San Francisco, CA: Berret-Koehler Publishers, Inc. (Reprinted in Myers, P.S. (Ed.). (1996). Knowledge Management and Organizational Design (pp. 39-53). Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.)

 

For BOOK REVIEW:  
Surname, Initials (Year). Title of article. Journal Name, Volume(Number), Start-end pages. [Review of the book by Initials Surname (Year). Title of book, Place of publication: Publisher.]

Schatz, B. R. (2000). Learning by text or context?. Science, 290, 1304. [Review of the book by J.S. Brown & P. Duguid (2000). The Social Life of Information, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press.]

 

For PUBLICATION WITHOUT AUTHOR:  
Substitute author with Publisher Name.

Hong Kong Monetary Authority (1999) Annual Reports, Hong Kong Monetary Authority, Hong Kong, China.

Merriam-Webster (1993) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th ed.), Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA.

The Washington Post (1993). New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. The Washington Post, July 15, p. A12.

 

For PERSONAL COMMUNICATION:  
Personal communications - emails, conversations, interviews, letters - should not be in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text, e.g., (interview with Name, Organization, Date).

..... is alright (personal communication with E.Y. Li, ICEB, March 28, 2017).

E.Y. Li of ICEB (personal communication, March 28, 2017) explained that it is alright to .....

 

For INTERNET HOMEPAGE:  
Surname, Initials (Year). Title of article. Website Name. Retrieved from URL full path (Date).

Balseiro, A., Selas, I. & Kotzrincker, J. (2000). Banca online. El Estado de la Cuestión. Retrieved from http://www.baquia.com/com/20001016/art00010.html (25 November 2011).

O'ullivan, O. (2000). Net banks: More dream than reality. US Banker. Retrieved from http://www.us-banker.com (18 February 2011).

 

For INTERNET HOMEPAGE WITHOUT AUTHOR:  
Substitute author with Website Name.

Pew Internet (2001). Hispanics and the internet. Pew Internet and America Life Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org (18 September 2011).

 

For PROCEEDINGS:  
Surname, Initials (Year). Title of paper. Title of proceedings (Volume, pp. Start-end pages). Publisher, Place and date(s) held.

Zhang, Q. & Cao, M. (2001). Human-machine Web interface design for electronic commerce: A review of design perspectives, objectives, dimensions, and techniques. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Electronic Business (pp. 404-405). ICEB, Hong Kong, China, December 19-21.

Alowibdi, J.S., Buy, U.A. & Yu, P. (2013). Empirical evaluation of profile characteristics for gender classification on twitter', In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (Vol. 1, pp. 365-369). IEEE, Miami, FL, USA, December 4-7.

 

For UNPUBLISHED PRESENTATION:  
Surname, Initials (Year). Title of paper. paper presented at Name of Conference, Place and date(s) held. Retrieved from URL full path (Date).

Geringer, J.M., Tallman, S.B., & Li, E.Y. (1994). Using resource-based theory to assess internationalization theories. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Conference, Dallas, TX, August 16.

 

For WORKING PAPER:  
Surname, Initials (Year). Title of paper. Working paper [number if available], Institution or organization, Place of organization.

Du, T.C., Li, E.Y., & Chang, J. (2002). Implementing association rule techniques in data allocation scheme of distributed databases. Working paper, Faculty of Business Administration, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, January.

 

For UNPUBLISHED THESIS/DISSERTATION:  
Surname, Initials (Year). Title of thesis/dissertation (Master's thesis/Doctoral dissertation, Name of institution, Place of institution, in what language if not English).

Huang, P.C. (2015). Exploring the deterministic factors of purchase intention of cross-border online shopping (Master's thesis, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan, in Chinese).

Pearson, S.W. (1977). Measurement of computer user satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ).